High-flow nasal oxygen in resource-constrained, non-intensive, high-care wards for COVID-19 acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure: Comparing outcomes of the first v. third waves at a tertiary centre in South Africa

Main Article Content

G Audley
P Raubenheimer
G Symons
M Mendelson
G Meintjes
N A B Ntusi
S Wasserman
S Dlamini
K Dheda
R Van Zyl-Smit
G Calligaro

Abstract





Background. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) is an accepted treatment for severe COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF).


Objectives. To determine whether treatment outcomes at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, during the third COVID-19 wave would be affected by increased institutional experience and capacity for HNFO and more restrictive admission criteria for respiratory high-care wards and intensive care units.


Methods. We included consecutive patients with COVID-19-related AHRF treated with HFNO during the first and third COVID-19 waves. The primary endpoint was comparison of HFNO failure (composite of the need for intubation or death while on HFNO) between waves.


Results. A total of 744 patients were included: 343 in the first COVID-19 wave and 401 in the third. Patients treated with HFNO in the first wave were older (median (interquartile range) age 53 (46 - 61) years v. 47 (40 - 56) years; p<0.001), and had higher prevalences of diabetes (46.9% v. 36.9%; p=0.006), hypertension (51.0% v. 35.2%; p<0.001), obesity (33.5% v. 26.2%; p=0.029) and HIV infection (12.5% v. 5.5%; p<0.001). The partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio at HFNO initiation and the ratio of oxygen saturation/FiO2 to respiratory rate within 6 hours (ROX-6 score) after HFNO commencement were lower in the first wave compared with the third (median 57.9 (47.3 - 74.3) mmHg v. 64.3 (51.2 - 79.0) mmHg; p=0.005 and 3.19 (2.37 - 3.77) v. 3.43 (2.93 - 4.00); p<0.001, respectively). The likelihood of HFNO failure (57.1% v. 59.6%; p=0.498) and mortality (46.9% v. 52.1%; p=0.159) did not differ significantly between the first and third waves.


Conclusion. Despite differences in patient characteristics, circulating viral variant and institutional experience with HFNO, treatment outcomes were very similar in the first and third COVID-19 waves. We conclude that once AHRF is established in COVID-19 pneumonia, the comorbidity profile and HFNO provider experience do not appear to affect outcome.





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How to Cite
1.
Audley G, Raubenheimer P, Symons G, Mendelson M, Meintjes G, Ntusi NAB, et al. High-flow nasal oxygen in resource-constrained, non-intensive, high-care wards for COVID-19 acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure: Comparing outcomes of the first v. third waves at a tertiary centre in South Africa. Afr J Thoracic Crit Care Med [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 4 [cited 2024 Jul. 14];30(1):e1151. Available from: https://samajournals.co.za/index.php/ajtccm/article/view/1151
Section
Original Research: Articles
Author Biographies

G Audley, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

P Raubenheimer, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

G Symons, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

M Mendelson, Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

 

G Meintjes, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town

N A B Ntusi, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; South African Medical Research Council/University of Cape Town Extramural Research Unit on the Intersection of Noncommunicable Diseases and Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

South African Medical Research Council/University of Cape Town Extramural Research Unit on the Intersection of Noncommunicable Diseases and Infectious Diseases

S Wasserman, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

S Dlamini, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

K Dheda, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; South African Medical Research Council/University of Cape Town Extramural Research Unit on the Intersection of Noncommunicable Diseases and Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine and UCT Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, South Africa; South African MRC/UCT Centre for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

South African Medical Research Council/University of Cape Town Extramural Research Unit on the Intersection of Noncommunicable Diseases and Infectious Diseases

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine and UCT Lung Institute and South African MRC/UCT Centre for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

R Van Zyl-Smit, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

G Calligaro, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine and UCT Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, South Africa; South African MRC/UCT Centre for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine and UCT Lung Institute and South African MRC/UCT Centre for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

How to Cite

1.
Audley G, Raubenheimer P, Symons G, Mendelson M, Meintjes G, Ntusi NAB, et al. High-flow nasal oxygen in resource-constrained, non-intensive, high-care wards for COVID-19 acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure: Comparing outcomes of the first v. third waves at a tertiary centre in South Africa. Afr J Thoracic Crit Care Med [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 4 [cited 2024 Jul. 14];30(1):e1151. Available from: https://samajournals.co.za/index.php/ajtccm/article/view/1151

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