The role of new hepatitis B vaccines in South Africa

Authors

  • G U van Zyl Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
  • T Maponga Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
  • H Rabie Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
  • J Taljaard Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2024.v114i2.1473

Keywords:

Hepatitis B virus, Vaccines, South Africa, Immunogenicity, HIV, Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract

Vaccination is key to eliminating hepatitis B virus infection in South Africa (SA). Despite introducing immunisation in 1995, as part of the expanded programme of immunisation (EPI), hepatitis B virus infection remains endemic, and EPI vaccine coverage is incomplete. In addition to infants, non-immune adults at risk of infection through their occupation or with behavioural risk factors should receive vaccination. SA has many individuals with diabetes mellitus (a prevalence of almost 13%), obesity, HIV (8.45 million) or older age (5 million >60 years old), associated with a poorer vaccine response. Recently two new hepatitis B vaccines have been licensed: HEPLISAV-B includes an adjuvant that improves immunogenicity and has shown improved vaccine response in individuals with HIV, old age or diabetes mellitus. PreHevbrio, which includes three hepatitis B surface protein domains, instead of one, may also be more immunogenic, although clinical study data are still limited. These two novel vaccines have not yet been investigated in children and licensed in SA. Should HEPLISAV-B become available in SA, it may be particularly valuable to target high-risk groups in the country, such as people living with HIV, who show a poor response to the currently licensed vaccine.

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Published

2024-02-13

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van Zyl GU, Maponga T, Rabie H, Taljaard J. The role of new hepatitis B vaccines in South Africa. S Afr Med J [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 13 [cited 2024 Jul. 14];114(2):e1473. Available from: https://samajournals.co.za/index.php/samj/article/view/1473

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