Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) refers to the formation of blood clots in the major deep veins of the body and together with pulmonary embolism (PE), a complication of DVT, accounts for about 60000 to 100000 mortality cases worldwide. This review aims to provide data on recent information regarding DVT in surgical departments globally. An online search of publications was done through Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library from 2015 to July 2022 with search phrases: “epidemiology of DVT in Surgery”, “deep vein thrombosis”, “Virchow’s triad”, “diagnosis and management of DVT”, and “DVT complications”, and a total of 27 publications with a total sample size 10694 were selected and reviewed. Statistically, 50% of DVT occurs due to hospital admission and surgery. The pathogenesis of DVT follows Virchow’s triad of venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial damage. The diagnosis of DVT is done by evaluating signs, symptoms, D-dimer testing, and doppler ultrasound scans. Antithrombotic agents or mechanical prophylaxis agents remain the mainstay for the management of DVT. Recently established ACCP guidelines may be used to aid in the choice of management of patients with DVT. Lastly, three main complications of DVT exist which may be fatal or cause significant morbidity. DVT can pose a significant burden in healthcare due to complications if not managed adequately and because studies on DVT in Africa, Asia, and South America are scarce there is a need for research on DVT worldwide, therefore studies can be done in individual surgical departments, countries, and common geographic locations.
Nicholson M, Chan N, Bhagirath V, Ginsberg J. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in 2020 and beyond. J Clin Med 2020;9(8):2467. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082467
StubbsMJ,MouyisM,ThomasM.Deepveinthrombosis.BMJ2018;k351.https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k351 3. Heit JA, Spencer FA, White RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis
Badireddy M, Mudipalli VR. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis. Treasure Island, Fla.: StatPearls
Publishing, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534865/ (accessed 1 December 2022).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is venous thromboembolism? Last reviewed 9 June 2022.
https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/facts.html (accessed 18 July 2022).
Anderson DR, Morgano GP, Bennett C, et al. American Society of Hematology 2019 guidelines for
management of venous thromboembolism: Prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgical hospitalised
patients. Blood Adv 2019;3(23):3898-3944. https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000975
Spronk HMH, Cannegieter S, Morange P, et al. Theme 2: Epidemiology, biomarkers, and imaging of venous thromboembolism (and postthrombotic syndrome). Thromb Res 2015;136(Suppl 1):S8-S12. https://doi.
Yang S-D, Liu H, Sun Y-P, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis in patients after spine surgery: A retrospective case-cohort study. Sci Rep 2015;5:11834. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11834
Danwang C, Temgoua MN, Agbor VN, Tankeu AT, Noubiap JJ. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Africa: A systematic review. J Thromb Haemost 2017;15(9):1770-1781. https://doi.org/10.1111/ jth.13769
Awolesi D, Naidoo M, Cassimijee MH. The profile and frequency of known risk factors or comorbidities for deep vein thrombosis in an urban district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. South Afr J HIV Med 2016;17(1):425. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v17i1.425
Kushner A, West WP, Pillarisetty LS. Virchow triad. Treasure Island, Fla.: StatPearls Publishing, 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539697/ (accessed 1 December 2022).
Piazza G, Hohlfelder B, Goldhaber SZ. Pathophysiology of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Beyond Virchow’s triad. In: Handbook for Venous Thromboembolism. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015:15-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20843-5_3
Olaf M, Cooney R. Deep venous thrombosis. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2017;35(4):743-770. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.emc.2017.06.003
Kruger PC, Eikelboom JW, Douketis JD, Hankey GJ. Deep vein thrombosis: Update on diagnosis and management. Med J Aust 2019;210(11):516-524. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50201
Adeleye AO, Ogun GO. Clinically diagnosed postoperative venous thromboembolism in a neurosurgery practice in Nigeria. World Neurosurg 2016;89:259-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.01.069
Stone J, Hangge P, Albadawi H, et al. Deep vein thrombosis: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and medical management. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017;7(Suppl 3):S276-S284. https://doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2017.09.01
Gharaibeh L, Albsoul-Younes A, Younes N. Evaluation of VTE prophylaxis in an educational hospital: Comparison between the institutional guideline (Caprini 2006) and the ACCP guideline (ninth edition). Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2016;22(7):627-632. https://doi.org/10.1177/1076029615575344
Douketis JD. Drugs for deep venous thrombosis. MSD Manual Professional Version. 2022. https://www. msdmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/peripheral-venous-disorders/drugs-for-deep- venous-thrombosis (accessed 18 July 2022).
Devis P, Knuttinen MG. Deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy: Incidence, pathogenesis and endovascular management. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017;7(Suppl 3):S309-S319. https://doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2017.10.08 20. Sleutjes JAM, van Lennep JER, van der Woude CJ, de Vries AC. Thromboembolic and atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in inflammatory bowel disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical management.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021;14:175628482110321. https://doi.org/10.1177/17562848211032126
Katholing A, Rietbrock S, Bamber L, Martinez C, Cohen AT. Epidemiology of first and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer. Thromb Haemost 2017;117(1):57-65. https://doi.
Hansrani V, Khanbhai M, Bhandari S, Pillai A, McCollum CN. The role of compression in the management of soft tissue ankle injuries: A systematic review. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2015;25(6):987-995. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00590-015-1607-4
Kahn SR. The post-thrombotic syndrome. Hematology 2016;2016(1):413-418. https://doi.org/10.1182/ asheducation-2016.1.413
Appelen D, van Loo E, Prins MH, Neumann MH, Kolbach DN. Compression therapy for prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004174. https://doi. org/10.1002/14651858.cd004174.pub3
Rabinovich A, Kahn SR. How I treat the postthrombotic syndrome. Blood 2018;131(20):2215–2222.
Kahn SR, Galanaud J-P, Vedantham S, Ginsberg JS. Guidance for the prevention and treatment of the post- thrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016;41(1):144-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11239-015-1312-5 27. Rocher WD, Page T, Rocher M, Nel D. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis prescription in surgical patients at a tertiary hospital in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S Afr Med J 2019;109(3):178-181. https:// doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2019.v109i3.13510
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2023 Albertina Shatri, Tulipo Ipinge